Home blog Serious losses will be borne by society as a whole due to the weak return of the institution of higher education.

Serious losses will be borne by society as a whole due to the weak return of the institution of higher education.

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Serious losses will be borne by society as a whole due to the weak return of the institution of higher education.

Higher education faces a dilemma: to provide education to as many people as possible and thus to increase the general level of education or to strengthen the selection mechanisms at all stages, from admission to graduation. In practice, this often leads to a contradiction between increasing availability and maintaining quality. An increase in the first leads to a decrease in the second. Not only the participants of the educational process themselves suffer from this, receiving insufficient quality training.

Serious losses will be borne by society as a whole due to the weak return of the institution of higher education. Such results are unlikely to be fair. We have a conflict between equality and justice. Focusing on the admission of an increasing number of students should allow all those who have the necessary abilities and motivation to gain access to higher education. However, unfortunately, we have to state that in many universities things are far from the case. Due to the continuous growth of the cost of higher education and the difficulties experienced by the state in terms of additional funding, families with modest incomes can not compare and contrast essay now 123 help afford to send children to higher education [1, p. 21].

The population of low-income countries of large groups of people, which include many post-socialist states, suffers more from this. Thus, the conclusion is made in the program document of the UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, "with wider access to opportunities for higher education, the effect of rejection mechanisms is maintained and even intensified in many cases … "[1, p. WITH].

Education policy must find adequate answers to minimize these negative phenomena.

The search for optimal strategies of action is conducted from two opposite directions:

The first is based on the latest neoliberal theories of sharply limiting the role of the state and public funding of higher education, almost equal to the activities of universities to the work of any other economic structures for the provision of services and profits. The second can be called social: it advocates a more active role of the state in meeting the needs of education, arguing that the concept of public income from educational services as more important than the narrow economic approach.

Both have their own vision of the principles of justice in higher education. These concepts may seem too rigid, because many higher education institutions have elements of both systems. However, in some universities with a fairly high reputation, there is a strong trend in favor of the first approach, although there are forces that support a more traditional approach that focuses on selfless finding and dissemination of knowledge, less receptive to environmental pressures.

The conclusions reached by the regional conferences held under the auspices of UNESCO in preparation for the World Conference in Paris (1998) did not receive the first approach of support. However, the private sector and market relations, long established in the field of education, each year strengthens its position in the market, especially in the field of new educational technologies. Two trillion dollars or one twentieth of the world’s gross domestic product is estimated to be spent on education. Approximately one-fifth of these costs are accounted for by the private sector, which seeks to increase its share of the huge education market. This process seems irreversible.

With the tacit consent of governments, this movement has spread throughout the world, supported by business and the general public. Both criticize public schools for the low quality of knowledge. In the mid-1990s, members of the European Council Table of Economics (an association of representatives of the 45 largest European concerns, founded in 1983) drew attention to "the widening gap between the education that people need in today’s complex world and the education they receive" [2, p. 3-4].

Access to higher education. Access is determined by the balance between demand from employers and the number of accepted and graduated students. Therefore, it is possible to provide restrictions on admission to the university, and the right to education becomes a privilege Education is considered a fundamental right of any citizen.

The function of the university is to prepare human resources to meet the economic, political, social and cultural needs of society. It is a matter of reconciling the criteria of quantity and quality, based on the principle of recognition of abilities. The nature of public funding

The system of public funding is in decline, it can even be called reactionary, because the poor (who pay a higher percentage of taxes) pay more to the rich. Thus, the fee for admission to the university seems to be less unfair.

The system of funding with limited state participation and the establishment of tuition fees is much more reactionary and regressive. Reducing inequality depends primarily on the state’s tax policy and a fairer distribution of public spending.

Social justice. The system is fairer if the student finances his / her own training. Thus, it is an internal affair of the university itself, which can keep part of the admission fee for the wealthiest applicants, in order to finance the training of the poorest students. In order to make the system fairer, there is a need for stronger policies of a global nature, understood as governments pursuing a policy of equal access to higher education for children from less affluent populations, reducing or removing financial barriers.

Quality assessment. Quality is determined by the ability of the graduate to fit into the employment market. Market ideology penetrates the understanding of the mission of the university. Quality is more important. It is evaluated on the basis of a concept "benefit to society"…

Proponents of liberalization criticize the public school system for failing to provide proper education. They emphasize the need to expand and diversify educational offerings and services to fully meet needs. The traditional education system is no longer suitable for this, as it has always depended on limited state funding.

At the same time, there is some concern as to whether the liberalization of the education system will discriminate against the poorest sections of the population and countries, or whether they will not be threatened. "universal values" then we will not lose the much-needed linguistic and cultural diversity of content and teaching methods. This concern was also expressed at the UNESCO World Conference: "We are witnessing that in parallel with the liberalization of the world economy there is a sharp growth of the private sector in education" [1, p. 16].

Moreover, the practice of paying for admission to higher education by the student or his family exists not only in private educational institutions. This fee is increasingly taken in many public universities, especially in developed countries, but not only. The problem of tuition fees in higher education has been repeatedly discussed at UNESCO conferences, with arguments "against" put forward much more and more often than arguments "by"…

Representative international regional conferences, set by less affluent countries, unanimously demanded greater democratization of higher education. They argued that states should take primary responsibility for funding higher education, that they should take into account the economic circumstances of students’ families, and that the only criterion for access or absence should be the ability of the student himself. This main criterion — ability — is fundamentally important for understanding the relationship of justice and equality in higher education. Its consistent observance is a mandatory component of justice in higher education.

Violation of the principle of abilities when entering the university and during the period of study indicates a clear deviation of the procedures and norms of higher education from the foundations of justice. In addition, the result is undermined another key foundation of the institution of higher education — ensuring the quality of education. "Thus, it is the principle of ability, ie the profile of adequate knowledge should be crucial in deciding on access to higher education" [1, p. 48].

There is no doubt that the indications for higher education should be a person’s ability to master the curriculum. It depends on the psycho-mental characteristics of the individual. According to health indicators, it is known that for every hundred children there is a certain percentage of mentally handicapped people who can not learn at all. In addition, there are twice as many so-called marginals — whose condition borders between mentally handicapped and normal people. Marginals are not only possible, but also necessary to teach to make useful members of society. However, only in special educational institutions designed for them.

In addition, there is another aspect of human abilities that must be considered in terms of access and selection in higher education — the ability to think abstractly. Twice as many, compared to the marginalized, are those completely normal children who are underdeveloped even at a lower level of abstract thinking. And even more — those who have insufficiently developed higher level of abstract thinking, without which it is very difficult to master the course of higher education.

In general, a fairly large number of those who could not apply for higher education on the basis of ability are recruited. This, of course, does not mean that most of them are unable to realize other personal inclinations (not related to the assimilation of modern programs of high level of complexity and abstraction) and be an equal and useful member of society. Therefore, access to higher education, along with the criterion of equality (with some restrictions) should still be based more on the assessment of the adequacy of a person’s abilities. Only in such a fundamental association, the institute of higher education will be able to ensure the fairness of the system and the quality of results [3, p. 225].

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