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Musketeers — maximalists in relation to themselves, and therefore to other people.

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Musketeers — maximalists in relation to themselves, and therefore to other people.

We can say that this is natural, because the time interval between works is thirty years. But the truth is different. Comprehension of history never left Yu. Mushketyk. Moreover, in order to better and more deeply comprehend the history of Ukraine, the writer turns to analyzes of the history of ancient Greece and Rome.

The subject of his daily studies are philosophy, religion, ethics and culture, both at the level of family and state, the existence of individuals and entire social strata. As a result, there are philosophical-analytical, deeply polemical works «Death of Socrates» (1971), «The Trial of Seneca» (1978), the purpose of which was to cover in parallel the experience of their own and other peoples. Experience both positive (civic courage of Socrates, who prefers to accept death, but not to betray his ideals and friends, his pedagogy), and bitter, painful (Seneca), in particular in the field of human conscience, dignity, honor.

The writer’s goal is to awaken and elevate individual, class, national self-consciousness, spirituality of contemporaries, so he depicts the «trial of Seneca» of students of the second half of the XX century, through the prism of which the true essence of not only the «defendant» but themselves. Later, Yu. Mushketyk wrote the novel «White Swan on the Black Shore» (1989), in which Rome and our Motherland appear, the fate of the poet persecuted by the regime of Octavian Ovid and destroyed by Stalin’s terror.

The writer completed his best historical novel «Yasa» ten years ago, which, however, finds its way to the reader only in the years of perestroika.

In fact, the panoramic work, in which Ukraine, Crimea, and Turkey have appeared for decades, has several storylines related to the fates of the patriot Syrovatka and his son, the Turkish prisoner Lavrin, Hetmans Doroshenko and Samoilovich, the treacherous existence of the unprincipled Mark, but and this time in the center of the image — the life of the basket of the Zaporozhian Sich Sulfur.

This is a demonstration of the life of the people in the tragic period of history after the death of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, when the defenseless land was besieged by external enemies (in the face of Crimean warriors and hypocritical rulers of Turkey, cruel, bloody colonizers of aristocratic Poland and insidious, selfish Moscow courtiers) and their internal, who doomed their people to powerlessness and torment or class-oppressive, or bargaining or treacherous policies.

The features of the novelist’s creative academic lab report writer method attract attention again: events of national significance are constantly traced by Yu. Mushketik with the help of a comprehensive analysis and ruthless introspection, pangs of conscience, and sometimes the true self-torture of the hero. Sulfur’s conclusions and assessments do not always coincide with certain histories.

The novelist does not seek to idealize in general a courageous, honest and far-sighted not only commander but also a politician like Sirko. His goal is to get to the truth about the historical destiny of the nation through the truth about Sulfur. Therefore, the novelist gives a broad — and in terms of intimate, family relations of Sulfur, the drama of his family, and in terms of military and political activities of the hero — one of the real leaders — a biography of the central character. But we always see the interests of society in every description: whether in the war with the Tatars and the nobility, or in the difficult relationship with the hetmans.

In the work «Position» his hero Fedor Grek at the moment of anxious reflections concludes: «Probably, sometimes a person still needs to think about himself and his life» otherwise neither she nor her world will change for the better.

Yu. Mushketyk also writes about Sirka, caring about the present and the future. It is no coincidence that the apex of the spiritual life of this character becomes an episode when he thinks: being must be seen in all its richness, diversity, contradictions, one-dimensionality and one-lineness are unacceptable. Here he was, Sirko, «young and wild as the steppe wind. And he needed nothing but the steppe and the horse, and the stars above his head. Only after the death of his sons did he realize that man was not only the steppe , the horse and the stars. A person is when he thinks of other people, when he prays for others and when his wounds hurt. «

Through reflection on man, on his comrades-in-arms, Sirko rose to an understanding of his responsibilities to his wife, sons, native land, and fighting society, and thus rose to greatness and immortality. Such were the true folk natures Syrovatka and Lavrin, who became symbols of human greatness, eternity. And hetmans Doroshenko and Samoilovich were not saved by wealth, cunning, or military ingenuity and power: their names are forever associated with symbols of duplicity, weakness, spirituality, and even betrayal. So, death while still alive.

Social justice, national freedom, humanism and high spirituality of the individual — these are the ideals of Yu. Mushketyk. He stops our gaze on events and figures dramatic and even tragic. Besides, not only from the ancient history. The years of war with fascism and the postwar period are the subject of the artist’s reflections in the novels «Fires in the Middle of the Night» (1959), «Black Bread» (I960), «The Last Island» (1969), and «Cruel Mercy» (1973). Even the headlines are characteristic: «Cruel Mercy» — about betrayed faith in love and friendship, in the romance of youthful fidelity and the reward for suffering; «The Last Island» — about an attempt to sit back, wait, come to the surface of those who carried the anti-spirituality of Stalinism, the cruelty of the apostles of power.

Deep reflections on the essence and purpose, human capabilities determine the content and form of the works «White Shadow» (1977), «Pain» (1978), «The Old Man in the plan» (1978), «Position» (1979) ), «Return to his house» (1981), «Border» (1984), «Collapse» (1985), «Yellow Dandelion» (1987), «Court» (1989).

Notable: the characters of these works — and historical figures (such as Gogol, Kukolnik in the story «Yellow Dandelion»), and typified images of people from the village («Position» «Border») and the city («Return to your home «» White Shadow «); representatives of both labor professions (mother in the story «Pain») and science, creative intelligentsia («The old man in the plan»). Musketeer’s palette of genres is also diverse: we have historical, socio-psychological novels («Haidamaki» «A Drop of Blood»), parables («The Old Man in the Plan» «Pain»), philosophical and psychological dramas («Death of Socrates «). ).

But there is one thing in common that determines the integrity of the lyrical epic of Yu. Mushketyk — the search for the essence of man, the limits of his capabilities, the causes of death and immortality, good and evil. It is also the desire to explore a person to see it from the inside, and thus encourage the reader to go from analysis to introspection, from assessing objective reality to developing a subjective attitude, personal assessments and personal position, choice in the most important issues …

The very desire to help people find the way to the truth, and thus rise to the humanistic ethical and aesthetic ideal, prompts Yu. Mushketyk to portray Gogol in tragic and Kukolnik in comic (from the point of view of history) moments of life. Similarly, in the name of knowing the reasons for the greatness or insignificance of man, the writer in the story «Pain» portrays a participant in the war Ivan through the prism of painful thoughts of the mother (she does not know that the son retreated at the time of trouble from comrades, but feels his drama) when his brothers are dead through his fault).

Only the depths of self-analysis of feelings, actions, thoughts, secret intentions help the hero of the «Position» Greek to defend the good from the encroachments of village and district officials, and the hero of the «Frontier» Orestes to rebel against the power of Parokon, who acted as a philanthropist. and falsehoods, demagoguery of the Stalin-Brezhnev state.

As a rule, the heroes of Yu. Mushketyk are maximalists in relation to themselves, and therefore to other people. Because of this, their lives are honest, beautiful, but their fate is often tragic. Such is the case with the architect Tyshchenko (the hero of the novel and the play «Return to your home»), such is the case with the heroine of the story «Court» — a talented worker, once famous for her noble work, and now the defendant Anna.

The principle of Yu. Mushketyk is again peculiar: in the center of the image is the culminating event (the conscience of the village appears as its shame), according to which — the story of Anna’s life, and at the same time — the history not only of the village but of the whole peasantry. as the embodiment of patriotism, and was an example of the most brutal antihumanism.

And this time a separate fact acquires the meaning of a symbol, an «everyday» event — metaphorical and parable. Anna’s drama is cruel, because she is judged by those who praised her yesterday, so she is a hypocritical and false friend. And the work, laconic in volume, strictly realistic in style, acquires a significant generalizing force, because the picture of the trial of a gullible woman is the trial of everything that caused the crisis of social, national, spiritual relations of society and had to become a defendant.

The truth of life — in the name of the triumph of truth, justice, spiritual honor, freedom — is such a civic and artistic goal of the works of Yu. Mushketyk. This determines the high social significance of the artist’s work, his innovative essence, the prospect of creative development.

literature

Dubyna MI Ukrainian literature. -K: Education, 1997. -360p. Neporozhniy OS Ukrainian literature. -K: Education, 1995. -623s. Petrenko AA Yuri Mushketyk. -K.: Education, 1978.280p.

September 18, 2011

Matsuo Basho (1644-1694): life and work. Abstract

The great national poet Basho took the same place of honor in the history of Japanese literature as Petrarch in Italy.

Japanese poetry of the seventeenth century, as it was before in the crucial epochs, played a leading role in the formation of new art. The main thing is that poetry in this era was a mass art form; poems were read, memorized. Comic genres of poetry came to the fore, the genre of hokku (wit, joke) enjoyed great success. At the end of the Haiyan era, the stanzas of the tank began to unite in long chains. Gradually, complex rules emerged, a new literary form was born — renga (stringing stanzas).

Poetic circles were assembled to compose the rank, and stanzas were composed alternately. The first stanza (hokku) was entrusted to the best poet, and the total stanza could be 36 (kasen) or one hundred (hyakuin). Renga is a suite with an unexpected plot twist that seems to erase zigzags. Strict rules limited the poet, prescribing to him in which order of stanzas the image of the moon should appear, and in which it is impossible to mention gods and Buddhas.

One theme usually developed over three stanzas.

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