Home blog At the same time, there were opposites ("It’s a different painting"), and Stendhal (the romantic himself) said: "…

At the same time, there were opposites ("It’s a different painting"), and Stendhal (the romantic himself) said: "…

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At the same time, there were opposites ("It’s a different painting"), and Stendhal (the romantic himself) said: "…

S. Baudelaire said that romanticism is "not a style, not a picturesque manner, but a certain emotional composition …". Indeed, all romantics were related primarily by a special attitude to reality — the desire to break out of the prosaic routine, hatred of the bourgeoisie, the common people, the cult of strong passions, loneliness, rejection of the unification of art.

And yet this artistic movement existed, and Delacroix after the exhibition of his painting "The Massacre at Chios" became its recognized leader. "Meteor that fell into the swamp" "fiery genius" — such were the reviews of Delacroix. At the same time, there were opposites ("It’s a different painting"), and Stendhal (the romantic himself) said: "… half-painted blue corpses." The picture is full of deep drama. Against the background of a gloomy but carefree landscape, the Turks trample and chop people. In the foreground are dying but not yet powerless men and women of all ages, from a perfectly beautiful young couple in the center to the figure of the craziest grandmother and next to her a dying young mother with a child pressed to her chest. Indifferent nature, or as Delacroix wrote in the Diary, "… I thought of my smallness in the face of these worlds hung in space."

In England, the most interesting achievements in painting at the turn of the century are related to the landscape. The brightest master of this genre was John Constable (1776-1837), who to some extent continued the tradition of T. Gainsborough. He painted Gothic cathedrals, landscapes of the town of Salisbury, the seafront in Brighton, his native river Stur, meadows, hills, valleys, mills and farms of his "favorite old green England". The artist was one of the first to create sketches in the open air, so that in his paintings you can feel the strength of the wind, the coolness of the shade, the freshness of greenery.

Combining greens with white, he was able to transmit its moisture, as if dewdrops were glistening on it. The constable skillfully conveyed the changing effects of lighting, the nuances of the life of each object ("Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Garden", "Wizz for Hay", etc.).

literature

History of world culture. -K, 1994. History of world culture. Cultural areas. Comp. LT Levchuk, VS Gritsenko, VV Efimenko. Kiev. Lybid. 1997 — 448. A brief history of the arts. -M, 1991. A brief history of the arts. -M, 1991. Culturology. History of world culture. — M .: UNITY, 1995 .— 224p. Ukrainian and foreign culture: Textbook. Pos. — K: knowledge, 2000 .— 622p.

06/27/2012

Cultural evolution: genesis and stages. Abstract

In order to better understand the essence of cultural evolution as a process of shaping human behavior, let’s turn to its genesis

In the animal world, there is also a non-genetic way of transmitting experience from one individual to another. For example, experiments with higher https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ apes show that they can be taught to use tools and even use the primitive language of the deaf and dumb. A monkey who knows the language of the deaf and dumb can teach it to other individuals. This has led some authors to talk about the existence of animals in elementary culture or protoculture.

Animals have an elementary means of transmitting experience, but there are no non-genetic means of consolidating this experience within a species or population. With the emergence of productive activity, man has other material structures besides germ cells, in which previous experience was fixed and with which, at the same time, previous experience was passed from generation to generation. Tools were made of such material structures. With the beginning of fixation in the means of production experience, each new generation, entering life, received at its disposal the materialized experience of previous generations, enriched it and passed it on.

The emergence of a new means of recording and transmitting experience resulted in the emergence of a special material process — the evolution of tools. Eventually, the development of tools came into conflict with the morphological structure of the human body and began to demand that it be brought into line with the needs of further progress. And this contradiction was overcome with the help of Gregorian-individual selection.

There can be no question of natural individual selection, because the ability to produce activities did not give any biological advantages to the individual, and their presence in the association of people made all members of the team, taken together, more capable of adaptation. The specificity of this selection was that its direction was determined not by the peculiarities of the environment, but by the peculiarities of the evolution of tools.

Since the evolution of tools, the main direction of development of the organism has gone along the line not of direct adaptation to the environment, but its adaptation to production activities and only thus to the environment. Due to all this, this selection can be characterized as production.

The peculiarities of production determined that the selection was not individual, that is, the flock in front of people better adapted to the environment and survived, which had more perfect tools. Production pregarno-individual selection was a special form, qualitatively different from the forms of natural selection. And attempts to put it on a par with the selection that led to the adaptation of one species of animals to life in burrows, another — to life in trees, have no basis. Under the influence of productive activity, the organization itself changed in front of people — from the pack (biological) to society (social).

Relationships in a pack are usually based on the principle of dominance of force. The manufacture of tools involves complications of the central nervous system, especially the brain, the ability to thin and precise movements, but not muscle development. Relationships that exist in the pack on the basis of force, at some point made it virtually impossible to develop production activities. It was necessary either to abandon the improvement of tools, and hence to adapt to the environment (which would mean the cessation of the evolution of the species and its degradation), or to choose another way — to go beyond biological to social organization, where the leading relations are production, which and determine the characteristics of human behavior, especially equal access to food.

Gradually, communist relations are formed, ie equal access of all members of the collective to existing property: food, tools, clothing, etc., which are found in peoples in the first phase of primitive society. Taboos played an important role in the neutralization of biological individualism and the formation of social relations (initially as relations of equality). Taboos were norms of behavior, expressed in the prohibition of any action. This norm seemed to be imposed on society from the outside by some external force that could not be ignored. This is how the public will expressed itself.

Associations in which taboos were violated inevitably disappeared. Social relations were finally established when the requirements of the team to the individual became the inner need of each member, and stronger than his biological instincts. It happened about 40-35 thousand years ago. Since then, cultural evolution has begun to determine the development of humanity, which has proceeded at a faster pace, increased the number of alternative forms of human behavior in relations with the environment.

Noting the peculiarities of cultural evolution, we emphasized that it is based on the preservation of knowledge, the acquisition of new knowledge and their transmission to future generations. In order to preserve and develop all its new social essence, to socialize in the proper direction of each individual, humanity had to give him the whole set of their social life — productive abilities, principles of relationships (taboos), as well as the spiritual world that began to take shape: thoughts, feelings, become people.

In the Upper Paleolithic (35 thousand years ago) a situation arose in which a significant part of social life could not be coded, embodied and transmitted by existing means. What means did the cultural evolution have at the time?

First of all, as already mentioned, the development of tools, the transfer of production experience in the process of teaching juniors to seniors.

There was language as a means of communication, though extremely primitive, undeveloped.

Certain moral ideas have already regulated the behavior of people, determined their attitude to each other, to the team, to people of the opposite sex, the world around them. This was taught from childhood.

Mythology, through the spiritualization of nature, tried to give a coherent and general picture of the world, although not in the conscious, but rather in a modeled, "pictorial" figurative form.

Predmagy served as a means of practical influence on the world and gave a person confidence in the success of the proposed business, passed on experience in various spheres of life. In particular, it is very likely that in primitive people hunting was preceded by his rehearsal. The complexity of hunting inevitably required at some stage a preliminary development of an action plan. Due to the extreme specificity of primitive man’s thinking, the elaboration of a hunting plan and the distribution of roles could take place only in the form of a staging of a hunt, which was not initially magical, but in the future was bound to become a rite — so magic arises.

All the means mentioned above preserved the existing social relations and the spiritual world of the people. Their limitation was that each of these means had a narrow field of application in social life (tools — the economy, taboos — moral life, etc.). They were factors in the external interaction of man and the world. In primitive society, there were probably quite frequent bursts of individualism, which manifested itself in various anti-social manifestations, so a tool was needed that, reproducing social values ​​and the "necessary model of life" directly and unforced influence on human worldview , regulating its behavior. The complicated spiritual world of the individual was in no way able to reflect and preserve any of these means.

These problems could be solved only with the advent of art. Art is able to absorb and convey all possible situations of human-world interaction, all situations of human relations, without any local restrictions. Art reflects both the material and spiritual aspects of social life. Art completely reproduces reality: it can preserve in a reflected form the material side of life and those human states, those types of human response to reality that are associated with them.

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